EGYPT, Electoral system

Established by the 1971 Constitution, amended in 1980 and 2007, the Egyptian institutional framework enshrines a presidential system with a strong executive and a weak legislative power.

Legislative power

Bicameral Parliament type:

The People’s Assembly (Majlis al-Chaab):

It has 454 members. 444 are elected by universal suffrage to serve a 5-year term and 10 are chosen directly by the president.
Since 2007, the budget must be accepted by the Assembly to be validated (art. 115). The Assembly must also agree on constitutional amendments, on certain organic laws and on the ratification of peace treaties and international conventions (art. 294).

The Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura):

It has 264 members. 176 of them, ie two thirds, are elected by universal suffrage to serve a 6-year term and are renewed by half every 3 years. The remaining third, ie 88 members, is directly appointed by the president for a term of 6 years.
Created by a constitutional amendment in 1980 at the initiative of the President, this institution has mainly an advisory role. This honorific Assembly especially allows the president to thank some loyal supporters.

The Executive Power

The president is elected to serve a 6-year term without renewal limitations. Before 2005, presidential election was conducted by indirect suffrage, by a two-thirds majority in the People’s Assembly. The choice was then ratified by a referendum with approval rates generally exceeding 90%. In May 2005, shortly before presidential election of that year and to give guarantees of democratization, art. 76 of the Constitution, which governs the procedure for presidential election, was voted by introducing the universal suffrage.
However, this apparent democratic openness has a limited scope. Indeed, only political parties are entitled, under certain conditions, to nominate a candidate. This greatly favours the candidate nominated by the presidential party that dominates so overwhelming political life since the Nasser period.

All other levels of executive power are appointed (or dismissed) by the president: Prime Minister and the Ministers of Defense, Interior, Foreign Affairs, but also the head of the army, head of intelligence, the directors of 15 state universities, the 26 governors,…