EGYPT

Conventional name: Arab Republic of Egypt (Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah)

Etymology: from the ancient Egyptian hikuptah « castle of Ptah’s Ka (soul) », one of the names of Memphis, that Greeks called Aiguptos and applied to the whole country. In Arab, Egypt is called misr « great city, capital », from the name of the new capital built up in Fustat, funded by Ubaydallah al-Mahdi, the first Fatimide calipha of Egypt, , on the 10th Century, and called misr al-qâhira « the victorious capital », nowadays Cariro.

Capital: Cairo.

Surface area: 1.001.449 km².

Comparison with a European country : About twice the size of Spain.

Administrative Divisions : 26 governorates (muhafazah / muhafazat)

Population (2007): 74 033 000

Population Density (2007): 70,1  inhabitants/km²

Young People under 15 years old (2004): 33.4%

Popultation Growth (2000-2005) : 1,9 %

Fecundity rate (2000-2005) : 3,29

Life expectancy (2000-2005) : 69,6

Infant mortality (2000-2005) : 36,7‰

Urban population (2007): 42,2 %

Illiteracy rate (2007): men: 32,8 %; women: 56,4%

Language: Arabic

Ethnic Background: Eastern Hamitic (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greeks, Nubians (approx.160.000), Armenians, other Europeans (primarily Italians and Frenchs) 1%.

Religions : Muslims Sunni 94%, Christians (Orthodox Copts, Catholics and Armenians) and other 6%.

HDI (Human Development Indicator, UNDP, 2008): within the 177 countries selected in the report Egypt is ranked 112. (rate 0,708 middle development)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (EGP) = 100 piasters (1 Egyptian £= 0,12 €uros, 07/15/2008)

GDP (2007): 305 255 millions de $

GDP per capita (2007): 4317  $

Annual growth: (1994-2004) : 4,8% – (2005) : 5 %

Unemployment Rate (2003): 9.9%

Labour Force by Sector of Activity (2003): Agriculture 17%, industry 33% and services 50%

Exports (2007): 10 672 millions de $

Imports (2007): 19 851 millions de $

Agriculture Products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement, metals, revenues from the Suez channel

Main trade exports: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals.

Main trade imports: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels.

Major Trading Partners (2003): Imports: US 13.6%, Germany 7.4%, Italy 7%, France 6.6%, China 4.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.3%; Exports: US 13.3%, Italy 12.3%, UK 7.9%, France 4.7%, Germany 4.7%, India 4.2%

Total External Debt (2003): 30.340 Million US $

Year of Independence : 1936 (from the United Kingdom)

Admitted in the United Nations in: 1945.

Member i.a. of : League of Arab States, OIC, COMESA, W.T.O.

State nature: Unitary Republic

Regime nature : presidential

Head of State (President): Adli Mansour

Prime Minister: Hazem El-Beblaoui

 

Sources (données): L’Etat du Monde 2003 (La Découverte), CIA World Factbook 2004, Arab Human Development Report 2002 (PNUD), l’Etat du Monde 2007 (La Découverte)